The speaker biographies for the 2018 CNO Summit are as follows:

Jane CummingsProfessor Jane Cummings, Chief Nursing Officer for England and Executive Director at NHS England.

Before progressing into general management, Jane specialised in Emergency Care. She has held a wide variety of clinical and managerial roles including Director of Commissioning, Director of Nursing and Deputy Chief Executive.

In February 2004, she became the National Lead for emergency care agreeing and implementing the 98% operational standard. She has also worked as the nursing advisor for emergency care. In January 2005, she was appointed as the National Implementation Director for ‘Choice’ and ‘Choose and Book’.

Jane moved to NHS North West in November 2007 where she held executive responsibility for the professional leadership of nursing, quality, performance as well as QIPP, commissioning and for a time Deputy Chief Executive Officer. In October 2011, she was appointed to the role of Chief Nurse for the North of England SHA Cluster.

She was appointed as Chief Nursing Officer for England in March 2012 and started full time in June 2012. Jane is the professional lead for all nurses and midwives in England (with the exception of public health) and published the ‘6Cs’ and ‘Compassion in Practice’ in December 2012, followed by publishing the ‘Leading Change, Adding Value’ framework in May 2016.

Jane has executive oversight of maternity, patient experience, learning disability and, in January 2016, became executive lead for Patient and Public Participation.

She was awarded Doctorates by Edge Hill University and by Bucks New University, and she is a visiting professor at Kingston University and St George’s University, London.

She is also Director and trustee for Macmillan Cancer Support and a clinical Ambassador for the Over the Wall Children’s Charity where she volunteers as a nurse providing care for children affected by serious illnesses.

Twitter: @JaneMCummings.

Jeremy HuntThe Rt Hon Jeremy Hunt MP

Jeremy Hunt was appointed Secretary of State for Health and Social Care on 8 January 2018. He was appointed Secretary of State for Health in September 2012. He was elected Conservative MP for South West Surrey in May 2005.

Jeremy was educated at Oxford University.

In May 2010 Jeremy was appointed Secretary of State for Culture, Olympics, Media and Sport. He was formerly Shadow Culture Secretary 2007 to 2010 and Shadow Minister for Disabled People 2005 to 2007.

Before his election as an MP, Jeremy ran his own educational publishing business, Hotcourses. He also set up a charity to help AIDS orphans in Africa in which he continues to play an active role.

Jeremy lives in Godalming and London with his wife, son and 2 daughters.

Secretary of State for Health and Social Care

The Secretary of State is responsible for the work of the Department of Health and Social Care, including:

  • overall financial control and oversight of NHS delivery and performance
  • oversight of social care policy

Simon StevensSimon Stevens, Chief Executive Officer of NHS England

Simon Stevens is CEO of NHS England, which leads the NHS’ work nationally to improve health and ensure high quality care for all. As the NHS Accounting Officer he is also accountable to Parliament for over £100 billion of annual Health Service funding.

Simon joined the NHS through its Graduate Training Scheme in 1988. As a frontline NHS manager he subsequently led acute hospitals, mental health and community services, primary care and health commissioning in the North East of England, London and the South Coast. He also served seven years as the Prime Minister’s Health Adviser at 10 Downing Street, and as policy adviser to successive Health Secretaries at the Department of Health.

Simon also spent a decade working internationally at UnitedHealth Group, including as its Medicare CEO and as president of its global health division, leading health services in the United States, Europe, Brazil, India, China, Africa, and the Middle East.

Simon was born in Birmingham, and was educated at Balliol College, Oxford University; Strathclyde University, Glasgow; and Columbia University, New York where he was Harkness Fellow at the New York City Health Department. He is married with two school-age children, and volunteers as a director of the Commonwealth Fund, a leading international health charity. He has also been a trustee of the Kings Fund and the Nuffield Trust, visiting Professor at the London School of Economics and a local councillor for Brixton in South London. He is an honorary fellow of The Royal College of General Practitioners and holds an honorary doctorate from The University of Birmingham.

Dr Linda Aiken, Director of the Centre for Health Outcomes and Policy Research at the University of Pennsylvania.

Linda H. Aiken, PhD, RN, FAAN, FRCN is the Claire Fagin Professor of Nursing, Professor of Sociology, Director of Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research, and Senior Fellow of the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Aiken conducts research on the use of performance measures to demonstrate relationships between health care workforce and patient outcomes in over 30 countries. She is the author of more than 300 scientific papers, and is the recipient of the Christiane Reimann Prize from the International Council of Nurses for her contributions to global health and nursing.  She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, is a fellow and past President of the American Academy of Nursing, and an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Nursing.

Susan Aitkenhead, Director of Nursing, Professional Development, NHS England

Susan Aitkenhead is a registered nurse with extensive clinical, operational and strategic experience in delivering healthcare across a variety of settings, with previous provider Director of Nursing roles at board level within the UK and overseas.

Additionally she has worked in a variety of national policy roles such as at the Department of Health providing advice and support to ministers and policy officials across central government departments, and in professional regulation at the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

Susan is a Director of Nursing at NHS England, and is also seconded out one day per week as the Board Nurse for Manchester Health and Care Commissioning.

Twitter: @SAitke

Sharon Allen, CEO, Skills for Care

Sharon has worked in the public and voluntary sector, social care and supported housing sectors for more than 30 years. A qualified social worker and housing professional, Sharon became Chief Executive Officer of Skills for Care in 2010, having previously been CEO of a large social care and supported housing. Sharon is a member of the Think Local, Act Personal (TLAP) Programme Board, Chairs the Operations Committee of the CHS Group (Housing Association) in Cambridge, a member of the Association of Coaching and is a board member of Age UK and Aston Organisational Development.

Sharon was awarded an OBE in June 2015 for services to social care, homeless people and housing.

Twitter: @sharonallensfc

Professor Lisa Bayliss-Pratt, Chief Nurse and Interim Regional Director for London.

Lisa was appointed as Chief Nurse at Health Education England (HEE) in 2012 and in this role she is responsible for leading national policy, workforce planning, and multi-professional education and training commissioning for the non-medical healthcare workforce. Key achievements include delivering transformation of nursing education and training (Raising the Bar), the successful test site programme for the Nursing Associate role, development and piloting of pre-degree care experience for aspirant nurses and leading the ‘return to practice’ initiative. In 2017, in addition to her Chief Nurse role, Lisa was appointed to the as Interim Regional Director for London and South East. As the Regional Director Lisa is responsible for approximately £1billion of investment in education, training and workforce development across London. Her role also includes providing support to five Sustainability and Transformation Plans within the capital.

Professor Viv Bennett CBE, Chief Nurse for Public Health England: Government’s Principal Advisor on Public Health Nursing

Viv has been Chief Nurse for Public Health England since 2012 (initially as Director of Nursing in a joint role with Department of Health and since April 2015 solely within PHE as Chief Nurse). As such she is the Government’s Principal Advisor on Public Health Nursing, providing high quality and independent nursing advice to ministers and officials on policy issues and public health nursing and the national lead for developing public health nursing and midwifery.

Viv is also the Head of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Nursing and Midwifery, which, designated since Nov 2016, aims to strengthen public health nursing and midwifery throughout the WHO Europe region by maximizing the role of nurses and midwives in preventing illness, protecting health and promoting wellbeing and resilience.

Howard Catton, Director, Nursing and Health Policy International Council of Nurses

Howard qualified as a Registered Nurse in the UK in 1988 and held a range of nursing posts in England and the United States. He studied social policy in Cardiff (BSc Econ) and Industrial Relations at Warwick (MA) and has worked as a Personnel and Organisational Change Manager in the NHS in the UK.

Howard held a variety of posts at the Royal College of Nursing UK, including as a national policy adviser for workforce research and health policy and spent a year working for the New Zealand Nursing Organisation. From 2005-15 Howard was the Head of Policy & International Affairs at the RCN.  His department worked with a wide range of stakeholders on the development and implementation of nursing and health policy both in the UK and overseas. Howard was named in the Health Service Journal top 100 Clinical Leaders list for 2015.

In April 2016 relocated to Geneva to join the International Council of Nurses. He is the Director, Nursing & Health Policy and leads the development of ICN policy across workforce, education, regulation, nursing practice and health policy.

Twitter: @HowardCatton

Anthony Clarkson, Chief Nurse – Organ Donation and Transplantation, NHS Blood and Transplant.

Anthony qualified as a RN in 1994, moving in 1997 to NHSBT working in Blood and Tissue Donation, taking on a number of nursing management roles before taking up his current post as Assistant Director for Organ Donation and Nursing in 2009.

Anthony manages the 12 teams of Specialist Nurses in Organ Donation who facilitate deceased organ donation across the UK. 2016/17 saw 1413 deceased Organ Donors in the UK, the highest number ever.

Anthony Chairs the NHSBT wide Nurse Leadership Team delivering the first ever NHSBT Nursing Strategy.

Twitter: @AJClarksonNHS

Jodie Deards, Carers Lead |Patient and Carer Experience

Qualified as a registered nurse in Australia and have worked in the NHS for just over 20 years. Specialised in Renal and Diabetes management as well as working as a practice nurse and community matron. In 2016 became the Carers Lead at East and North Hertfordshire Trust. The role has grown to ensure that carers have been incorporate into the Trusts strategy. Jodie is very passionate about service improvement and ensuring carers are equal partners in care. In 2017 won the RCNi Commitment to Carers Award.

Twitter: @DeardsJodie

Avril Devaney MBE,  Director of Nursing, Therapies and Patient Partnership, Cheshire & Wirral Partnership NHS Foundation Trust

Avril has been Director of Nursing and Therapies at Cheshire and Wirral Partnership NHS Foundation Trust since 2003. She is Visiting Professor at the University of Chester and Chair of the National Mental Health Nurse Directors Forum.

Avril has a keen interest in Nurse Leadership and Organisational Change, which was the focus of her MSc in Health and Social Care.

She is committed to reducing health and social inequalities receiving The Queen’s Nursing Institute Award for Innovation in 1999 after establishing a mental health nursing service in police custody suites. She has led CWP’s Challenging Stigma Campaign since 2004 and link with Kisiizi Hospital in Uganda since 2010. During 2017 she led on the development of CWP’s Person Centred Framework.

Avril received an MBE in the Queen’s New Year Honours 2016 for services to Mental Health Nursing.

Twitter: @avril_devaney

Niall Dickson, Chief Executive, NHS Confederation

The former head of the General Medical Council, Niall Dickson, was appointed chief executive of the NHS Confederation in February 2017.

During his time at the GMC from 2010 to 2016, Niall delivered a raft of reforms. These included an expansion of its responsibilities for medical education and training, the introduction of revalidation in 2012, the introduction of language checks for doctors from Europe in 2014, and the establishment of the Medical Practitioners Tribunal Service to provide a clear separation between the GMC’s investigation of complaints and the adjudication of hearings.

He worked as chief executive of the King’s Fund from 2004 to 2009 before being appointed as chief executive and registrar of the General Medical Council in January 2010. Mr Dickson also led the International Association of Medical Regulatory Authorities (IAMRA) until 2016.

He was the editor of the Nursing Times from 1983 to 1988 before joining the BBC as health correspondent in 1988 and progressing to the position of social affairs editor for BBC News from 1995 to 2003, broadcasting mainly on the BBC1 Ten O’Clock News and Radio 4’s Today programme.

Niall was awarded a CBE in the Queen’s Birthday Honours List in 2017.

Prof Brian Dolan, Visiting Professor of Nursing, Oxford Institute of Nursing, Midwifery and Allied Health Research (OxINMAHR), Oxford.

Brian Dolan is Director of Health Service 360 which provides online 360 appraisals for nurses, doctors, allied health practitioners and managers. He works with organisations in New Zealand, Australia and Ireland as well as the UK undertaking leadership development, culture change improvements in patient flow and whole systems reform.

He has published over 70 papers and is author/editor of six books, mainly on emergency care. He holds Masters degrees in Nursing (King’s College, London) and Educational Research Methodology (Oxford University). He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, Honorary Professor of Leadership in Healthcare at University of Salford, and Visiting Professor of Nursing at the Oxford Institute of Nursing, Midwifery and Allied Health Research (OxINMAHR).

Brian originated the #EndPJparalysis campaign to encourage patients to get up, dressed and moving while in hospital. By February 2019 #EndPJparalysis had accrued >169 million impressions on Twitter. He’s also originator of #Last1000days which is about valuing patient time as the most important currency in health and social care.

Cristina Gavrilovic, Anti-Slavery Partnership Coordinator, Serious Crime Directorate, Kent and Essex Police

Cristina was appointed as the Anti-Slavery Partnership Coordinator for Essex Police and Kent Police Serious Crime Directorate in 2016 and since her appointment, a record number of 500 victims have been identified through her work that saw a number of sectors joined and supported in actively participating in the fight against Modern Day Slavery and Human Trafficking.

Cristina has the opportunity to address the gaps in our social justice system, ensuring organisations put Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery at the top of their agenda and that victims are at the heart of decision making. This area of her work was recognised by the British Association of Women in Policing where she was awarded Best Police Staff of the Year.

Kevin Hyland OBE, Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner.

Kevin Hyland OBE is the first UK Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner, as appointed by the then Home Secretary Theresa May MP. The creation of the Commissioner role is one of the key provisions of the landmark Modern Slavery Act, which received Royal Assent in March 2015.

Mr Hyland spearheads the UK’s fight against modern slavery, with a concerted focus on strengthening law enforcement efforts in the UK and internationally, ensuring that public authorities identify and support victims effectively, and working to prevent modern slavery crimes from occurring in the first place, both in the UK and other source countries. Mr Hyland played a key role in ensuring ending modern slavery was included as a target in the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals for 2015-2030.

Ms Elizabeth Iro, Chief Nursing Officer

Elizabeth Iro has been appointed Chief Nursing Officer of WHO. From the Cook Islands, Ms Iro has served as the country’s Secretary of Health since 2012. In this role, she has implemented legislative reforms to strengthen the country’s health system and developed the National Health Strategy 2012-2016, the National Health Road Map 2017-2036, the National Health Strategic Plan 2017-2021, the Health Clinical Workforce Plan, and the National Water Policy and Road Strategy. She has also been a key advocate for the introduction of sugar levies.

Prior to this role, she served as the country’s Chief Nursing Officer from 2011 to 2012, as Acting Director of Hospital Health Services from 2009 to 2010 and as Quality Manager from 2008 to 2010. In addition, for the first 25 years of her career, she was a practising nurse and midwife, serving in several roles in the Cook Islands and New Zealand. This experience includes working as the Charge Midwife of Rarotonga Hospital’s Maternity Ward from 1997 to 2005.

Graham Jones, Director, Transform Healthcare Cambodia

Graham is a senior lecturer at Teesside University School of Health & Social Care and a board member of the Charity Transform Healthcare Cambodia. Transform Healthcare is a UK based charity established to provide healthcare education, training and clinical expertise to support our Cambodian colleagues at Battambang Hospital Cambodia.

The charity, each year sends out three teams of healthcare professionals, one team of qualified nurses, midwives and doctors in February and November and a team of student nurses in July. Graham has headed four teams to date, organising and liaising with Cambodian colleagues to facilitate the optimum experience for those who volunteer.

Graham has interest in the globalisation of nursing practice and champions initiatives to develop awareness of the importance of global nursing among nurses and particularly nursing students. Participation empowers nurses to develop leadership skills and qualities and to become innovators who facilitate the achievement of sustainable clinical excellence.

Julia Jones, Co-founder, John’s Campaign

Julia Jones is co-founder of John’s Campaign with Nicci Gerrard. She’s a writer and publisher and has also spent many years working in education. The books written or edited by Julia that are relevant to family caring are Beloved Old Age and What To Do About It,  NOT Forgotten Lives: Felixstowe 2017, Please Tell Me and Honoured Guests (written for Care England, available as free download). She’s the primary carer for her mother who is 94 years old and lives with dementia. She’s also a “sandwich carer” with responsibilities within her multigenerational family.

Website: johnscampaign.org.uk

Annette Kennedy, President, International Council of Nurses.

Annette Kennedy elected President of the International Council of Nurses in May 2017 an organisation representing 135 National Nurses Associations and broadly 17million nurses worldwide. She was Vice President of ICN 2013-2017. She was awarded an honorary fellowship in nursing from the Royal College of Surgeons Ireland in 2016.

She was President of the European Federation of Nurses from 2005- 2007 representing 30 European National Nursing Associations .Executive Board member of EFN 1999-2004.

Annette is actively involved in social society and is currently Chairperson of the Bray Homeless Forum an organisation made up of voluntary, statutory and community organisations and agencies working with /supporting people who are homeless or having a policy remit around homelessness. She is also a Director on the Citizens Information Service Board.

Annette has been an elected representative on many university boards and has served on many national and international committees.

Jen Kenward, RGN, MA; Experience of Care Lead (Community, Primary and Integrated Care), NHS England

Jen qualified as a registered general nurse, her background includes practice across a wide range of medical and surgical specialties, establishing nurse-led services and having a key role in the development of integrated care services. She has established educational programmes in London working across three trusts and in partnership with Middlesex University and the Open University to provide a development programme for health care assistants, fast tracking them into registered nurse training.

Jen moved from clinical practice and education into operational management, first as a lead for equality and diversity, before leading patient experience in a large acute trust.  She joined the patient experience team at NHS England in July 2013 and has specific responsibility for supporting work to improve experience in relation to end of life care, long-term conditions and unpaid carers.

Jen is the national lead for NHS England’s Commitment to Carers Programme.

Jen has been a carer for 12 years.

Twitter: @JenKenward

Professor Cheryl Lenney, Chief Nurse Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, RN RM ADM MA (HSM)

Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (MFT) was formed on 1st October 2017 following the merger of Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust. Cheryl is accountable for Nursing and Midwifery on the Board of Directors, the Director of Infection Prevention and Control and the Executive lead for safeguarding. Cheryl is a registered nurse and registered midwife with an MA in health service management. She has held a number of clinical and managerial roles and is a visiting professor for nursing leadership at Manchester Metropolitan University and Honorary Clinical Chair (MAHSC) nursing, midwifery and allied health professions.

Twitter: @mftchiefnurse

Carolyn Morrice, Chief Nurse, Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust

Carolyn has been Chief Nurse at Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust since April 2014.

She has over 30 years’ experience in the NHS, having trained at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary and spent 15 years in London specialising in vascular surgery. Carolyn held a number of senior nurse leadership posts in Hertfordshire and Essex before joining BHT in 2013 as divisional chief nurse for surgery and critical care.

Buckinghamshire is a vanguard integrated care system; as one of the clinical leaders, Carolyn is passionate about involving local communities and strengthening the professional voice to shape the future of health and care.

Twitter: @BHTchiefnurse

Louise Patten, Chief Executive, Aylesbury Vale and Chiltern CCG

Lou Patten has been Chief Executive of Aylesbury Vale and Chiltern CCG since June 2016, having previously been Chief Officer at Aylesbury Vale CCG since 2013.  She successfully led the federation of the two Buckinghamshire CCGs and has led on the successful bid for Buckinghamshire to become one of the first eight Accountable Care Systems (ACS).  During this time she has developed high performing CCGs with a national reputation for strong clinical leadership and innovation.  A registered nurse, Lou has developed a patient focused approach to system wide change across Buckinghamshire, working in partnership with other health and care organisations.

Lou trained as a registered nurse at Southampton University Hospital and later took her diploma in district nursing and a degree in health science.  She had previously held the position of PCT Deputy Chief Executive and Board Nurse; her experience includes working as Assistant Director of Nursing for a community services provider.

After a year-long sabbatical, undertaking an MBA at Brunel University, she worked for a commercial healthcare organisation, set up her own consultancy company and held a Director post at Watford Football Club’s Community Trust.  She then moved to Bucks Urgent Care as the MD responsible for the operationalisation of the Minor Injuries Units and Out-of-hours services before moving to the Practice Based Commissioning Company and then CCG.

Professor Mark Radford BSc (Hons) RGN, PGDip (ANP), MA (Ed), PhD, FHEA

Mark Radford is Director of Nursing (Improvement) for NHS Improvement with a portfolio that covers workforce, quality improvement and Governance.

Mark has worked in Perioperative, Emergency and Intensive care in the UK and Europe.  He was previously been a Chief Nurse of a University Teaching Hospital and Consultant Nurse in Emergency & Trauma care.  Mark is Professor of Nursing at Birmingham City and Coventry Universities, and has published research on staffing, advanced practice, perioperative and trauma care.

Dr. Gloria Rowland,  Director of Midwifery, Barts Health NHS Trust.

Gloria was first trained as a registered nurse and midwife in Nigeria before relocating to the United Kingdom. Gloria continued her nursing career in UK after completing her NMC adaptation programme to become a UK registered nurse. Since then she has gained further qualifications- BSc Midwifery, MSc Community Public Health Specialist Practitioner and Doctor of Clinical Practice.

She has a strong passion for change, innovation and transformation of health services. Gloria is the first Black African Head/Director of Midwifery in the UK.  She became a Mary Seacole Scholar awarded by the Department of Health in 2009, a Florence Nightingale Research Scholar in 2011. Gloria has won many national awards for her work in transforming maternity care. Her recent work involved transforming poor performing maternity services into a good maternity unit.

Janice Sigsworth, Director of Nursing, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust

Janice Sigsworth is the Director of Nursing at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust (ICHT).    She joined the Trust from the Department of Health where she was Deputy Chief Nurse (England).

With a clinical background in respiratory medicine and long term conditions, Janice has a BSc in Nursing and an MSc in Health Service Management.  She also has honorary professorial appoints with King’s College London, Buckinghamshire New University and Middlesex University.

Her priorities at ICHT have been to prepare the nurses and midwives to lead the delivery of compassionate high quality care, with a strong focus on improving the experience of staff and patients, as well as the outcomes of nursing and midwifery care.

Professor Geraldine Walters CBE, Director of Education, Standards and Policy, Nursing & Midwifery Council.

Professor Geraldine Walters joined the NMC as Director of Education, Standards and Policy, in September 2016. Having originally trained as a cardiac nurse, her career progressed to a number of executive nurse director posts within acute NHS Trusts in London, at St George’s, Epsom, St Helier NHS Trust, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, and most recently she was Executive Director of Nursing and Infection Control at Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

Geraldine is also a visiting professor at Buckinghamshire New University and at the Florence Nightingale School at King’s College London.

Geraldine will be overseeing the NMC’s Education, Standards and Policy directorate at an important time. Council has outlined education as a corporate priority and Geraldine will be leading on the ambitious programme of change for education including the development of new standards of proficiency for future graduate registered nurses and midwives.

Geraldine was awarded a CBE for services to nursing and midwifery in January 2017. She has also a number of academic achievements including an MBA from Henley 1996, and her PhD in 1992 on “Strategies for dealing with pre-hospital cardiac arrest in London”.

Baroness Mary Watkins of Tavistock; Visiting Professor King’s College London

Mary is a nurse academic who has held university posts, non-executive roles in the NHS and not-for-profit sectors.

In December, 2015 she was appointed as a Crossbench member of the House of Lords as Baroness Watkins of Tavistock.

She is a visiting professor at Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, King’s College London and President of the Florence Nightingale Foundation.

Mary has published extensively and presented at conferences contributing to debates on subjects ranging from nursing, the cost of social housing for NHS workers, public health and social care.

Thomas Whitelaw BCAh, UK Project Lead, Dementia Carer Voices

For five years Tommy Whitelaw was a full-time carer for his late mother Joan who had Vascular Dementia, and in 2011 Tommy undertook a walk around Scotland’s towns and cities to collect hundreds of life story letters detailing the experiences of individuals caring for a loved one living with dementia.

Since then, he has engaged with thousands of carers through his ‘Tommy on Tour’ blog and as UK Project Engagement Lead with the Health and Social Care Alliance’s Dementia Carer Voices Project, conducting frequent talks to health and social care professionals and carer organisations across Scotland, to raise awareness of the impact of dementia on families and the importance of empowering carers in carrying out their difficult but vital role.

Twitter: @tommyNtour  @DementiaCarerVo