Examples of survey tools for use in supported self-management

Focus area Surveys/scales Tool description
Self-management needs and behaviours Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire
  • Focuses on people with diabetes
  • 16 items focused on blood sugar management, dietary control, physical activity and healthcare use
  • Available in multiple languages. Developed in Europe
  • Can be used as an individual assessment tool or measure to track progress before and after an intervention
Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire (LTCQ)
  • Explores impact of long-term conditions on people’s lives and the individual support they want or need
  • 20-item tool developed in the UK
  • No cost
Physical Activity Scale
  • Various tools to measure whether people are taking part in self-management behaviours, such as eating healthily and being active
  • Can be used to identify the support behaviours and needs of individuals or groups, or to assess change after interventions
  • No cost
Self-Management Assessment Scale
  • Tool to help a person self-assess their self-management strengths, needs and possible barriers
  • Focuses on knowledge, goals for the future, daily routines, emotional adjustment and social support
  • Can be used in conversations with professionals
  • Can be used to tailor support for individuals or to measure change after an intervention
  • Tested in various parts of the world and with people with different conditions
  • No cost
Health literacy[1] (ability to obtain, read, understand, and use healthcare information) Single Item Screener (SILS)
  • Single question that can be added to other questionnaires
  • Asks how often a person needs someone’s help when they read health information. Usually used as a one-off assessment rather than a before and after measure
  • Needs to be sensitively administered and may be most helpful when used in conjunction with techniques such as teach back
  • No cost
  • Many other longer health literacy tools are available
Newest Vital Sign (NVS)
  • People are given a food label and asked six questions
  • Available in English and Spanish
  • Short; takes 3 minutes. Designed for one-off use
  • No cost
Enablement/activation Consumer Health Activation Index (CHAI)
  • Examines knowledge, self-efficacy, beliefs, activity and internal locus of control
  • Can be used as an individual assessment tool to help tailor support, or as a measure of impact after an intervention
  • No cost, but requires registration
Patient Activation Measure® (PAM®)
  • 10- or 13-item scale categorises people into four levels of activation or readiness to self-manage
  • Case studies and summary of evidence are available here.
  • Mainly used as an individual assessment tool. Can be used before and after interventions
Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI)
  • 6-item scale exploring whether enablement improves following a primary care visit
  • Used at one point in time; people are asked to reflect on whether things are much better, better or the same, or not as good following a consultation
  • 3 items from this are used in the General Practice Assessment Questionnaire, so it may be possible to draw on existing data at population level
  • No cost
Self-efficacy (extent to which a person believes in their ability to self-manage) Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy
  • 6-item scale validated in many languages
  • Developed in the US, so wording may need to be adapted for use in the UK
  • No cost
Self-Management Screening Tool
  • 27 items about self-efficacy, whether people feel they control what happens to them, depression, anxiety, coping, social support, and burden of disease
  • Developed in Europe
  • Mainly used to tailor individual support but can be used as before and after measure
  • No cost
Wellbeing / health status quality of life EQ-5D
  • Short tools to measure quality of life, including mobility, self-management, usual activities, pain and anxiety
  • Available in over 200 languages and various formats
  • Can be used as before and after measure
  • Widely used so can compare with other initiatives
Personal Wellbeing (ONS4)
  • Used in the Office for National Statistics’ Measuring National Wellbeing (MNW) Programme
  • Asks people to evaluate how satisfied they are with their life overall
  • Used by some UK social prescribing link workers, both when they start working with people and later. Some other areas use Outcomes Star™, a set of visual tools including some for young people
  • Many domains to choose from, including physical health, mental health and social health/isolation
  • Includes scales for adults and for children
  • Can be used as before and after measures
  • Developed in the US
  • No cost
Self-Rated Health Scale
  • Single-item validated tool used in US national surveys
  • Asks people to rate their health out of 5
  • Can be used as a before and after measure
  • No cost
Short Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS)
  • Used for both populations and individual interventions
  • Short. Validated in several languages
  • Need to register to use, but no cost
Pain Visual Scale
  • Example of visual scale to help people assess pain
  • Can be used to track change over time
Extent to which professionals or systems support self-management Practices in Self-Management Support
  • Developed in the UK to measure clinicians’ self-reported use of supported self-management practices in consultations
Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CSPAM)
  • Explores professionals’ attitudes towards using the PAM tool
  • Used in the UK and internationally
Assessment of Primary Care Resources and Supports for Chronic Disease Self-Management
  • Developed by a group focused on diabetes, but can be used more broadly in primary care
  • Designed to track progress in organisations over time
  • Developed outside the UK, so wording may need to be adapted
  • Online version available
Patient Assessment of Care for Chronic Conditions (PACIC)
  • 20- and 26-item scales developed in the US
  • Looks at a variety of elements of care. Supported self-management is one element

[1] Given that 43–61% of the working age population in England do not routinely understand the health information they are given (Institute of Health Equity/Public Health England 2015), a Universal Precautions approach (based on using simple language, checking understanding and avoiding the use of medical jargon and acronyms) rather than a measurement approach is generally recommended in most situations.